During our processing design paper last year, we looked into the material properties of wax, specifically how it reacted to being melted and then cooled to varying degrees. And in the last few days, I have been working on a technique in grasshopper which is to some extent reproducing those results. So I did a few iterations and thought I’d post up the results of the digital wax models.
This technique was birthed out of my trying to intentionally ‘break’ kangaroo simulations, something which I would encourage you to try if you are an avid grasshopper user. When you try and push the boundaries of a simulation, interesting things can happen. in essence, I tried to rapidly change the tension of a mesh in kangaroo. This, in conjunction with a bit of magic to avoid self collisions in the engine, produced some much more raw results. Then it was just a matter of applying a little bit of smoothing over the top of the mesh (note: iterative smoothing, not subdividing) to even out some of the larger creases that had formed, and voila! The following results were produced!
The genesis of this project is rooted in an exploration of the possibilities for Computational Fluid Dynamics within an architectural paradigm. Essentially, this project questions our current perception of water/other Fluid substances and whether there is room for their application to an architectural problem. Fluids have many properties which make them a very interesting material to work with, properties such as its ability to retain volume, or the way it conforms to fit a vessel of any shape, so this became my primordial concern – how can the adaptive nature of a fluid manifest itself and transcend the way we presently think about buildings. form, and space?
So when the adaptive nature becomes our primary concern, a lot of other spin offs become possibilities. If a building could be made of liquid, this really begins to interrogate several things fundamental to our established ideas of architecture. Form is no longer permanent, in fact form is no longer an adequate way to describe the resulting state of matter. We are no longer bound to site, an adaptive building needs no fixed location – a fluid building could just as easily exist on land as it would in the water. The programme of the building as well is almost unnecessary, as any requirements for the building can be made on the fly.
So what this project is really creating is a system. A system of architecture which operates completely unlike anything we have ever seen before. So how does this system work? How do we garner any control over Fluids? In order to achieve this, we need to use a specific kind of Fluid, one which can be moulded indirectly, one which can respond to field conditions, the solution lies in a specific category known as Smart Fluids. Smart Fluids rely on a change in field strength (be it electric or magnetic) in order to create a form of sorts. A special kind of Fluid called Ferrofluid is a magnetically charged Fluid which can be shaped by a given magnetic field, so now the problem becomes how do we shape the magnetic field so as to control this system.
The Mag Suit V3 is a feat of engineering. Powered by a wireless energy adapter on the back of the suit, the suit is a magnetic field generator. Essentially, when a human is wearing this suit, they become an integral part of the magnetic field, due to the electromagnetic device which they are now wearing. In order to interact with the building, one must wear this suit. The suit generatres enough magnetic field strength in order to create a magnetic network strong enough to shape the smart Fluid which the building is comprised of. The suit has four main magnetised areas, two at the base of the feet, and two at the hands. The wearer of the suit is hence able to block out the shape of the building for a temporary amount of time as well as add finer detail articulation to the surface using hand gestures. Sensors on the chest region of the device also give information about the building; number of occupants, proximity to other individuals, and suit information such as the current emitting strength of the magnetic field or any warnings they need beware of. The Mag Suit V3 also comes with three fail-safes – two batteries to store energy from the wireless receiver, and an emergency battery as well.
And herein lies the bulk of the proposition. My project suggests that people will be fitted with a suit, which, when activated, essentially turns their person into a node of a greater magnetic field.
As an individual tracks along, the Fluid will respond accordingly, creating a space or volume around them. However this becomes a lot more interesting when the magnetic fields of different individuals interact with each other, creating an interference pattern of sorts in a three dimensional space.
The different magnetic polarities and their relative proximities serve to define an entirely different experiential quality to the space. Furthermore, each individual will have control over the strength of their own magnetic field and poles via the wearable device attached to their palm.
Now of course, the magnetic field which has been created does exist indefinitely, in fact the magnetic field will hold for only brief amounts of time, relying on residual magnetism in the field to allow the particles to hold until they are disturbed again or until the residual magnetism wears off. What this also entails is that when no one is occupying the building, the matter which creates it will slowly but surely reside into its ‘rest state’ until it is further re-agitated.
Computational Fluid Dynamics allow us to digitally simulate and solve complex interactions between tens or even hundreds of millions of particles in order to predict their behaviour from moment to moment so that we can understand how they will react to a certain circumstance or how we should adapt our environment based on those results. This incredibly powerful system is still largely unexplored in the realm of archictectural significance, so what benefits could this system bring to architecture and how does it react to contemporary architectural practice? What if we could literally make a building out of water or a Fluid? Fluids have many properties which make them a rather unique genesis. It is possible to quantify the veloctiy, vorticity, viscoscity, surface tension, compressibility (or lack thereof), stability, elasticity, etc. of a fluid. But the most obvious properties of a Fluid are its ability to retain volume, and its ability to conform to the shape of any vessel, and hence its true adaptability. If we could harness control over the way Fluids behaved, then immediately the formal possibilites become limitless, but moreover, our definition of space and borders becomes nothing more than mere guidelines of a past reality. If we could control the Fluids, architecture would no longer be bound to shape, site, scale or programme. And herein lies the ultimate question – How do we gain control over a Fluid? Because that is what we strive for as part of the human condition, control over every domain of our lives. So why should architecture define me? Why can I not define the architecture?
I wanted to 3D print some wearables for my project this semester, so in order to do that, I had to do some 3D scans of my hand. This in fact turned out to be surprisingly difficult, as I had to try and hold my hand incredibly still in order to be able to orbit around and capture the detail. Here’s the result after a few attempts:
This was as good a result as we could get after a few attempts, as you can see, the fingers don’t line up very well on the front and back of the hand due to the movement during the scan, so this method was really less than ideal.
I decided to do a plaster cast of my hand by first making a reverse cast in alginate, and then use that as a static model to capture with the 3D scanner, and this turned out to be a much more successful method (As a side note, I’m incredibly impressed with the amount of detail the plaster cast managed to retain, right down to the fingerprints on my fingers, see images).
As you can see in the last image, this turned out a lot better, with only minor issues in the middle and ring fingers which were easy enough to resolve in maya and zbrush.
I got another water model 3D Printed today (see previous prints here), as seen below. This print was based off a new series of tests I did in Maya’s Bifrost, trying to attain more control over the spatial creation of the Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation.
What this project aims to create is an architectural system. A system which allows the inhabitant to create and control the architecture rather than be a mere observer of an already built environment.
The system abides by three rules:
There is no final form, no end goal, the form is temporal, it is a product of the inhabitants movement through space.
The only rest state of the building is when there are no inhabitants, one where there is no one to affect the form. When no one is present the building subsides into the terrain.
Where multiple individuals interact, the effect is multiplied, creating a greater temporary inhabitable volume.
The material is a huge part in creating a system like this. The material must be able to rigid enough to hold a form while at the same time being fluid enough to be adaptable and malleable. The solution to this lies in a scope of fluids which do not perform like normal fluids, fluids which exhibit non newtonian behaviour. These fluids have the ability to change from a liquid to a pseudo-solid state upon an array of interactions.
The mechanism which turns the skin from solid to liquid relies on an increase in magnetic field activity. Inhabitants of this system (in order to interact with the space) must wear a device which generates a magnetic field around them. When the liquid is in close enough proximity to this field, it abides to the direction of the magnetic field lines, creating an enclosure which moves with the subject, and where multiple fields interact, ie. numerous inhabitants in close proximity, the greater the resultant space.
The magnetic field will be generated by users of the building, each wearing a suit as shown in the animation below (work in progress), this device will be able to generate a magnetic field of variable strength, great enough to temporarily solidify the encompassing area.
The space however will only hold for a limited amount of time, as an inhabitant moves around in space, the ferrofluid they have interacted with holds some residual magnetism, and this residual magnetism, coupled with the low magnetic permeability of ferrofluid means that it can retain its shape for brief periods of time.
I’ve been setting up a few 3D Prints for testing purposes, to see what kind of definition can be obtained from the various 3D Printers, as well as how the different meshes will turn out. The first 3D print was done on an UP printer, the second on a Makerbot 2X, and the third on an industrial 3D printer. Here’s the results:
The first 3D print wasn’t a great success, definitely looked a lot better as a digital model than in print.
The second model turned out pretty good! Surprisingly, the Makerbot did pretty well on the resolution of the result.
The third 3D print turned out really really good! Well impressed with the result and fidelity of the mesh, but at the same time really scared to handle the result as it is incredibly delicate.
The last 3D print also turned out really great compared to a simple render of it:
Using the previously modified images, I was able to use that to drive a simulation to create an animated topology. Mapping the displacement back in as a texture also really helped with the reading of the renders.
I took some of the stills from my last post and did some image manipulation to bring out some of the detail that I think gets lost in the animations. I tried to recreate and enhance the depth, particularly in the first sequence of images. The second image to me almost creates sense of spatial quality, at the very least an atmospheric condition.
But what these illustrations really succeed in is suggesting a sense of permeability and looseness. Since my design this semester is focused on the idea of adaptation, it is paramount to express the notion of boundary (or lack thereof) and its inherent flexibility. Furthermore, it is important to interrogate this idea of inside and outside space for the success of my concept and ultimately how well this looseness will be portrayed.
After doing some more tests in the last few days, I’ve gotten into some smoke effects, which have been working with varying degrees of success. I’m still trying to understand the maya fluids system, but there certainly are a lot of variables and configurations that I’ll keep chugging through for my catalogue.
I also rendered out a bifrost sequence as they have been producing the best (most liquidy) results so far.
I’ve been moving away from Maya Bifrost in the last week or so to explore some of the more traditional dynamics systems in Maya. This here is a combination of nParticles as well as Maya Fluids.
Below are two early simulations I’ve done, the aim at this stage is create a sizable catalogue of tinkering with different effects in the fluids and dynamics systems available, with the intention to gain a better understanding of the dynamics systems and how to garner more control over this complex system.